Department of Bio-Medical Sciences - Philadelphia
Associate Professor of Microbiology and Immunology

Christopher Scott Little, PhD


Office: 215-871-6882
Research Page

Dr. Little is active in the Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program and has participated in the course for over 10 years and currently serves as the course director for the Infectious Processes course. He is active in the Neurosciences course and recently joined Dr. Appelt as co-director of this course in 2013-2014. Additionally, Dr. Little has served as faculty advisor for numerous students earning their Master of Science degree upon completion of the research focus of the Biomedical Sciences Program. He is also involved in the education of Medical students and lectures in the Cellular and Molecular Basis of Medicine course. Dr. Little’s lecture material includes the following topics; inflammation, apoptosis, autoimmunity, allergy, acute phase reactants.

Research Keywords

Infection/Infectious disease
Alzheimer’s disease
Chronic Disease

  • Education

    PhD, Molecular Pathobiology Program MCP-Hahnemann University
    BS, Eberly College of Science at the Pennsylvania State University

  • Research

    Dr. Little's research interests include immunology and chronic infection associated with diseases of aging, specifically the role of the immune system in modulating disease severity. One research focus includes the identification of elements of the immune system critical in the prevention of dissemination of the respiratory pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae, to extra-respiratory sites. He has published articles pertaining to the forementioned topic as well as invgestigating the role of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in the induction of Alzheimer-like pathology in a non-transgenic mouse model of experimentally induced AD-like pathology. The experimental induction of Alzheimer-like pathology in non-transgenic mice serves as a model to study early developments and inducing factors that may lead to symptomatic illness for the sporadic/late onset form of Alzheimer's disease.

    Additionally, Dr. Little’s research interests include the study of severe/life-threatening food allergy, particularly life-threatening allergic reactions following consumption to peanuts. These studies involve identifying key immune cells responsible for immune-modulation of the allergic response to peanut and then reprogramming these cells to ameliorate this condition. Dr. Little is a member of The New York Academy of the Sciences, The Alzheimer’s Association, The Microscopy Society of America and Sigma Xi Scientific Research Society.

  • Publications

    Selected Publications

    Effect of age and vaccination on extent and spread of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in C57BL/6 mice. Eddens T, Beaudoin S, Steinberger A, Little CS, Shell D, Wizel B, Balin B, Fresa-Dillon KL. 2012, Immun Ageing. May 17;9(1):11

    Immunohistological detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer's disease brain.
    Hammond CJ, Hallock LR, Howanski RJ, Appelt DM, Little CS, Balin BJ.
    BMC Neurosci. 2010 Sep 23;11:121.

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae and the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease.
    Balin BJ, Little CS, Hammond CJ, Appelt DM, Whittum-Hudson JA, Gérard HC, Hudson AP.
    J Alzheimers Dis. 2008 May;13(4):371-80. Review.

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae and the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease.
    Balin, B.J., Little, C.S., Hammond, C. J., Appelt, D. M., Whittum-Hudson, J.A., Gerard,
    H.C., Hudson, A.P., 2007. Journal of Alzheimers Disease (Accepted).

    Antibiotic Alters Inflammation in the Mouse Brain During Persistent Chlamydia
    pneumoniae Infection. Hammond, C., Little, C.S, Longo, N., Procacci, C., Appelt, D.M.,
    Balin, B.J., 2006. 10th ICAD & Related Disorders;Alzheimer's Disease New Advances;

    Age alterations in extent and severity of experimental intranasal infection by
    Chlamydophila pneumoniae in BALB/c mice. Little, C. S., A. Bowe, R. Y. D. Lin, J.
    Litsky, R. M. Fogel, B. J. Balin, and K. L. Fresa-Dillon. 2005. Infection and Immunity 73:

    Chlamydia pneumoniae induces Alzheimer-like amyloid plaques in brains of
    BALB/c mice. Little, C. S., C. J. Hammond, A. MacIntyre, B. J. Balin, and D. M. Appelt.
    2004. Neurobiology of Aging 25:419-429.

    Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease. Balin, B. J., C.J.
    Hammond, C. S. Little, A. MacIntyre, and D. M. Appelt. 2003. In: Chlamydia pneumoniae
    Infection and Diseases, H. Friedman ed., Kluwer Academic Plenum, New York, NY. p211-

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promotes the transmigration of monocytes
    through human brain endothelial cells. MacIntyre, A., R. Abramov, C. J. Hammond,
    A. P. Hudson, E. J. Arking, C. S. Little, D. M. Appelt, and B. J. Balin. 2003. J. Neuroscience
    Research 71:740-750.

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection alters the junctional complex proteins of human
    brain microvascular endothelial cells. MacIntyre, A., C. J. Hammond, C. S. Little,
    D. M. Appelt, and B. J. Balin. 2002. FEMS Microbiology Letters 217:167-172.

    Ultrastructural analysis of beta-amyloid production in monocytes, epithelial, and
    endothelial cells infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae isolated from Alzheimer
    brains. Little, C. S., A. MacIntyre, C. Hammond, E. Venuti, B. J. Bromke, B. J. Balin, and
    D. M. Appelt. 2000. EXPO:Microscopy and Microanalysis. Vol. 6 (S1):411.

    Rational design of cytotoxic T-cell inhibitors. Tretiakova, A. P., C. S. Little, K. J. Blank,
    and B. A. Jameson. 2000. Nature Biotechnology 18:984-988.

    Differences in the immune response during the acute phase of E-55+ murine
    leukemia virus infection in progressor BALB and long term nonprogressor
    C57BL mice. Panoutsakopoulou, V., C. S. Little, T. G. Sieck, E. P. Blankenhorn, and
    K. J. Blank. 1998. The Journal of Immunology 161:17-26.