Brian J. Balin, PhD
Director, Center for Chronic Disorders of Aging
Professor of Pathology, Microbiology, Immunology & Forensic Medicine
Department of Bio-Medical Sciences
Post-doctoral Fellowship – University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia,
PhD, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
BS, University of Maryland, College Park, MD
Dr. Balin is a professor in the department of Biomedical Sciences, teaching in both
the DO and Biomedical masters programs. He lectures and participates in case presentations
and laboratory sessions on a variety of subjects including: neuroscience, neuroanatomy,
neurodegeneration, neuropathology, general pathology, molecular basis of cancer, and
Dr. Balin is an internationally-recognized expert in the field of Alzheimer's Disease
research. His research interests include: Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae as a trigger in the neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease,
effects of infection and inflammation on the blood brain barrier in cerebrovascular
disease, modification of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins through phosphorylation and
the action of transglutaminase, and pathogenesis of chronic disease associated with
the aging process. Dr. Balin has received numerous National Institutes of Health and
private foundation grant awards for his research. He is highly published in peer-reviewed
journals, and has written a number of chapters and reviews on the pathology of Alzheimer's
disease, including reviews on the "Pathogen Hypothesis" of this disease (see live
discussion section, www.alzforum.org). In addition, he has presented and continues to present his work at major national
and international scientific meetings including a number of international and world
congresses on Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.
Medical College of Pennsylvania Nominee for Presidential Faculty Fellowship Program
Amer Soc for Cell Biology-Glenn Foundation Award for Outstanding Research in Aging
Professor of the Year 2008 – Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine – Awarded
by DO class of 2010
Alzheimer’s Association “Making the Difference” – in recognition of co-editorship
of JAOA Supplement – “Managing Alzheimer’s disease through early detection and treatment
Balin, B.J., Gérard, H.C., Arking, E.J., Appelt, D.M., Branigan, P.J., Abrams, J.T., Whittum-Hudson,
J.A., and Hudson, A.P.: Identification and localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer's brain. Med. Micro. & Immunol. 187:23-42, 1998.
Katsetos, C.D., Herman, M.M., Balin, B.J., Arking, E.J., Vinores, S.A., Karkavelas, G. and Frankfurter, A.: Divergent neuronal
and glial differentiation of the PC12 rat pheo-chromocytoma cell line maintained in
a gelfoam matrix system: An immunoperoxidase and immunoblot study with antibodies
to neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, synaptophysin,GFAP and S100 protein. Anat. Record 250:351-365,1998.
Lieberman, A.P., Trojanowski, J.Q., Lee, V.M.-Y., Balin, B.J., Ding, X.-S., and Grossman, M.: Cognitive, Neuroimaging, and Pathological studies
of Pick’s Disease. Ann. Neurol. 43:259-265,1998.
Reed, L.A., Schmidt, M.L., Wszolek, Z.K., Balin, B.J., Sootorniyomkij, V., Lee, V.M.-Y., Trojanowski, J.Q., and Schelper, R.L.: The Neuropathology
of Chromosome 17-linked Autosomal Dominant Parkinsonism-Dementia (Pallido-ponto-nigral
degeneration). J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. 57:588-601, 1998.
Gerard H.C., Wang G.F., Balin, B.J., Schumacher H.R., and Hudson A.P.: Frequency of apolipoprotein E (APOE) allele types
in patients with Chlamydia-associated arthritis and other arthritides. Microbial Pathogenesis 26:35-43, 1999.
Arking, E.J., Appelt, D.M., Abrams, J.T., Kolby, S.J., Hudson, A.P., and Balin, B.J.: Ultrastructural Analysis of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer’s brain. Pathogenesis 1(3):210-211, 1999.
Abrams, J.T., Vonderheid, E.C., Kolby, S.J., Appelt, D.M., Arking, E.J., and Balin, B.J.: Sezary T Cell Activating Factor is a Chlamydia pneumoniae associated protein. Clin. Diag. Lab. Immuno. 6 (6):895-905, 1999.
Balin, B.J. and Appelt, D.M.:Transglutaminase-catalyzed Formation of Alzheimer-like Insoluble
Complexes From Recombinant Tau. In:Alzheimer’s Disease: Methods and Protocols. (In
Methods in Molecular Medicine, pp 395-403, The Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ; edited by Dr. Nigel M. Hooper, 2000).
Hudson, A.P., Gerard, H.C., Whittum-Hudson, J.A., Appelt, D.M., Balin, B.J.: Chlamydia pneumoniae, APOEgenotype, and Alzheimer’s Disease. In: Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chronic Diseases, pp 121-136, 2000; Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany; edited by Johanna L’Age-Stehr).
Katsetos, C.D., Valle, L.D., Geddes, J.F., Assimakopoulou, M., Legido, A., Boyd, J.C.,
Balin, B., Parikh, N.A., Maraziotis, T., de Chadarevian, J-P., Varakis, J.N., Matsas, R., Frankfurter,
A., Herman, M.M., and Khalili, K.: Aberrant localization of the neuronal class III
beta-tubulin in astrocytomas. Arch Pathol Lab Med 125(5):613-624, 2001.
Abrams, J.T., Balin, B.J., and Vonderheid, E.C.: Association between Sezary T Cell Activating Factor, Chlamydia
pneumoniae, and Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma. New York Acad Sci 941:69-85, 2001.
Balin, B.J., Appelt, D.M. : The Role of Infection in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 101 (12 Suppl PT 1): S1-S6, 2001.
MacIntyre, A., Hammond, C.J., Little, C.S., Appelt, D.M., Balin, B.J.: Chlamydia pneumoniae infection alters the junctional complex proteins of human brain microvascular endothelial
cells. FEMS Microbiology Letters 217: 167-172, 2002.
MacIntyre, A., Abramov, R., Hammond, , C.J., Hudson, A.P., Arking, E.J., Little, C.S.,
Appelt, D.M., Balin, B.J.: Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of human brain endothelial cells and monocytes promotes the transmigration
of monocytes through an in vitro blood brain barrier. J. Neurosci. Res. 71: 740-750, 2003.
Balin, B.J., Appelt, D.M., Whittum-Hudson, J.A., Hudson, A.P.: Infectious Agents and Alzheimer’s
Disease. Recent Research Developments in Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 1:187-202, 2003.
Balin, B.J., Hammond, C.J., Little, C.S, MacIntyre, A., Appelt, D.M.: Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. In: Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection and Diseases. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, New York; Edited by Drs. M. Bendinelli,
Y. Yamamoto, and H. Friedman, 2004, pp. 211-226.
Little, C.S., Hammond, C.J., MacIntyre, A., Balin, B.J. , Appelt, D.M. : Chlamydia pneumoniae induces Alzheimer-like amyloid plaques in brains
of BALB/c mice. Neurobiol. Aging 25: 419-429, 2004.
R.F. Itzhaki, M.A. Wozniak, D.M. Appelt, B.J. Balin. Infiltration of the brain by pathogens causes Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol. Aging, 25:619-627, 2004.
Little, C.S., Bowe, A., Lin, R., Litsky, J., Balin, B.J., and Fresa-Dillon, K.L.:Age alterations in extent and severity of experimental intranasal
infection by Chlamydophila pneumoniae in BALB/c mice. Infect. and Immun. 73:1-12, 2005.
Young, L.H., Balin, B.J., and Weis, M.T.: Go 6983: A fast acting protein kinase C inhibitor that attenuates
myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Cardiovascular Drug Reviews 23: 255-272, 2005.
Gérard, H.C., Dreses-Werringloer, U., Wildt, K.S., Oszust, C., Balin, B.J., Frey II, W.H., Bordayo, E.Z., Whittum-Hudson, J.A., and Hudson, A.P.: Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in the Alzheimer’s brain. FEMS Immuno. and Med. Micro. 48:355-366, 2006.
Balin, B., Hammond, C., Taylor, A., Tuitt, K., Abraham, J., Appelt, D. Immuno-detection of
Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in the Alzheimer brain. In Alzheimer's disease: New Advances, Medimond Internatl Proceedings, 301-5, 2006.
Hammond, C., Little, C.S., Longo, N., Procacci, C., Appelt, D., Balin, B. Antibiotic alters inflammation in the mouse brain during persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae
infection. In Alzheimer's disease: New Advances, Medimond Internatl Proceedings, 537-540, 2006.
Way, D., Albert, E., Hammond, C., Bell, M., Balin, B., Appelt, D. Caspase activity is inhibited in neuronal cells infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae: implications for apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease. In Alzheimer's disease: New Advances, Medimond Internatl Proceedings, 295-99, 2006.
Balin, B.J., Appelt, D.M., Little, C.S., Hammond, C.J., Whittum-Hudson, J.A., Hudson, A.P.: Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in Alzheimer’s disease. In: Microbial Infections of the Neurologic System. Springer Publishers; Edited by Andreas Seyfang, H. Friedman, and M. Bendinelli,
Appelt, D.M., Roupas, M., Hammond, C.J., Little, C.S., and Balin, B.J.: Apoptotic effects of Chlamydophila pneumoniae following infection of neuronal cells. BMC Neuroscience, 9:13-23, 2008.
Balin, B.J., Little, C.S., Hammond, C. J., Appelt, D. M., Whittum-Hudson, J.A., Gérard, H.C.,
Hudson, A.P. Chlamydophila pneumoniae and the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. J. Alz. Dis. 13:371-380, 2008.
Hammond, C. J., Hallock, L.R., Appelt, D. M., Little, C.S., Balin, B.J.: Immunohistological Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer’s Disease Brain. BMC Neuroscience 11:121, 2010.
Metz, R.A., Balin, B.J., Abrams, J.T., Schrogie, J.J.: Inflammatory mediators may have divergent roles in
cancer and in Alzheimer's disease. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 88(4):466, 2010.
Simpkins, J.W., Wood, B.E., Balin, B.J.: Alzheimer disease: the crisis is upon us. J. Am. Osteopath. Assoc., 110 (9 Suppl 8): Sii-2, 2010.
Galluzzi, K.E., Appelt, D.M., Balin, B.J.: Modern care for patients with Alzheimer disease: rationale for early intervention.
J. Am. Osteopath. Assoc.,110 (9 Suppl 8):S37-42, 2010.
Balin, B.J., Schrogie, V.J., Abrams, J.T.: Toward a unifying hypothesis in the development of
Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 17:587-589, 2011.
Hudson, A.P., Balin, B.J., Crutcher, K., Robinson, S.: New thinking on the etiology and pathogenesis of late-onset
Alzheimer’s disease. International J. Alzheimer’s disease 2011:1-2, 2011.
Balin, B.J., Hammond, C.J., Little, C.S., Appelt, D.M., Hingley, S.T.: Evidence for an Infectious
Etiology in Alzheimer’s disease. In: Advanced Understanding of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-529-7, Intech, Rijeka, Croatia,
Thacker, J.D., Balin, B.J., Appelt, D.M., Sassi-Gaha, S., Purohit, M., Rest, R.F., Artlett, C.M.: Host-response
to injury and infection and development of a first-in-class, broad-spectrum, anti-infective
drug. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo. 56(4):1921-1930, 2012.
Balin, B.J. and Hammond, C.J.: Emerging viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous
system. Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine 4:1-10, 2012.
Eddens, T., Beaudoin, S., Steinberger, A., Little, C.S., Shell, D., Wizel, B., Balin, B., Fresa-Dillon, K.L.: Effect of age and vaccination on extent and spread of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in C57BL/6 mice. Immunity and Ageing, 9(1):11, 2012.
Balin, B.J. and Hudson, A.P.: Etiology and pathogenesis of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep, 14:417, 1-10, 2014.
Lim, C., Hammond, C.J., Hingley, S.T., Balin, B.J.: Chlamydia pneumoniae induces an inflammatory response consistent with that observed in Alzheimer’s disease.
J Neuroinflammation, (in preparation), 2014.
American Association of Bioanalysts (San Antonio, TX) - "New Germ Theory of Disease". (Keynote Address), May 18-20, 2000.
Max-Planck Institute for Infection Biology (Berlin, Germany) - "New Germ Theory of Alzheimer’s Disease". March 27, 2001.
45th Annual American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Research Conference (San Diego,
CA) - "Microbial Agents as Environmental Factors in Chronic Disease States" October 23,
33rd National Symposium for Eastern Pennsylvania Branch of the American Society for
Microbiology – “Infections of the Central Nervous System” (Philadelphia, PA) – “Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Alzheimer’s Disease”. November 14-15, 2002.
Savyon Diagnostics, Inc. in conjunction with 14th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology
and Infectious Disease (Prague, Czech Republic) – “C. pneumoniae in Alzheimer’s Disease”. May 1-4, 2004.
Avigen, Inc. (Oakland, CA) - “Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Alzheimer’s Disease”. May 7, 2004.
Association of Clinical Scientists Annual Meeting (Troy, Michigan) – “Evidence for Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease”. May 11-14, 2005
The Rotary Club (Moorestown, NJ) - “Evidence for Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in Alzheimer’s disease”. October 20, 2005.
Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Continuing Medical Education (Philadelphia,
PA) – “Correlating current hypotheses of Alzheimer’s Disease for bench to bedside intervention”.
May 20, 2006.
Drexel University, Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology (Philadelphia, PA) – “Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in Alzheimer’s disease”. June 8, 2006.
Macula Vision Research Foundation (Santa Fe, NM) – “Evidence for Chlamydia pneumoniae as a Trigger for Sporadic Late-onset Alzheimer’s Disease”. September 14-17, 2006.
Saint Vincent Health System (Erie, PA) – “Emerging Pathogens in Alzheimer’s disease” – January 18-19, 2007.
AOA Research Conference (San Diego, CA) - Chronic Disorders of Aging in the 21st Century: New Insights and Approaches – “Infection
and Neurodegenerative Disorders”, October 26, 2007.
Lankenau Institute for Medical Research (Wynnewood, PA) – “Chlamydia pneumoniae in Alzheimer’s disease – latest updates”, May 14, 2009.
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (Nashville, TN) – “Chlamydia pneumoniae as an environmental risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease”,
March 12, 2010.
Neurotalk 2010 (Singapore, Singapore) – “Evidence for Infection as an environmental risk factor for Alzheimer’s Disease”,
June 26, 2010.
AOA Research Conference 2010 (San Francisco, CA) – “Chlamydia pneumoniae in Alzheimer’s disease: Analysis of the Host-Pathogen Relationship,
October 25, 2010.
Conestoga High School Advanced Psychology (Paoli, PA) – “Alzheimer’s disease: A researcher’s perspective” – October, 2011 and 2012
AZO Pharmaceutical Fraternity - Kappa Chapter, Continuing Education Programs (Timonium,
MD) - “Analysis of Risk Factors in Alzheimer’s disease: What About Infection?”, October
Baldwin School – Advanced Biology Class – (Bryn Mawr, PA) – “Analysis of Risk Factors in Alzheimer’s disease: What About Infection?” – March
Volunteer & Leadership
Chairman, IACUC for Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (1999 - 2003)
Admissions Committee for Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (1999 - 2011)
Director, Center for Chronic Disorders of Aging at PCOM – (2005 – present)
Academic Planning and Budget Committee for PCOM (2004 - 2008)
Chair, Faculty Senate – PCOM (2008 - 2009)
Faculty Representative to Executive Faculty – PCOM (2009 - 2010)
NIH/NIA - R29-AG10160 ; - PI; "The neuronal cytoskeleton in aging and Alzheimer's Disease".(4/1/92-3/31/97).
AHERF Neurosciences Grant (G9410-020-Y01) - Co-PI; "Differential expression and sorting of the neuron-specific class III b-tubulin
isotype in human neuronal and neuroendocrine tumor cell lines maintained in an organ
culture system". (2/1/95-1/31/96).
NIH/NIAID - R01- AI44055-01A1 - coPI; “Chlamydia pneumoniae: a pathogen in Alzheimer’s Disease?” (06/01/99 - 05/31/04).
NIH/ R15-co investigator- "Immunosenescence and Chlamydia Pneumoniae " (05/01/00-6/30/02)
Adolf and Rose Levis Foundation - PI -“The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer’s
disease”. (1/01/2003- present)
IIRG – Alzheimer’s Association – PI: “Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of mice triggers Alzheimer-like pathology”
(09/1/04 – 08/31/07).
Osteopathic Heritage Foundation Endowment – PI (Director, CCDA ) – “Endowment for the Center for Chronic Disorders of Aging”.
(12/8/06 - present).
The IHVR (Institute for Hepatitis and Virus Research) through a DCED (Department of
Community and Economic Development) Innovation Grant from the State of Pennsylvania
called “Talent Scout for Technology” – PI: “The case for an infectious etiology of
late onset Alzheimer’s disease “ (01/01/11 – 12/31/11).
Numerous interviews with NBC 10 and ABC 6 affiliates
Write-ups in local, national and international newspapers
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Infectious disease
- Chlamydia pneumoniae Pathogens
- Blood-brain and olfactory/nasal brain barriers