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Balin, Brian

Brian Balin, Ph.D.

Brian J. Balin, PhD

Director, Center for Chronic Disorders of Aging
Professor of Pathology, Microbiology, Immunology & Forensic Medicine
Department of Bio-Medical Sciences

Ph: 215-871-6862
FX: 215-871-6869
E-mail: Brianba@pcom.edu



Post-doctoral Fellowship – University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA
PhD, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
BS, University of Maryland, College Park, MD


Dr. Balin is a professor in the department of Biomedical Sciences, teaching in both the DO and Biomedical masters programs. He lectures and participates in case presentations and laboratory sessions on a variety of subjects including: neuroscience, neuroanatomy, neurodegeneration, neuropathology, general pathology, molecular basis of cancer, and infectious disease.

Dr. Balin is an internationally-recognized expert in the field of Alzheimer's Disease research. His research interests include: Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae as a trigger in the neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease, effects of infection and inflammation on the blood brain barrier in cerebrovascular disease, modification of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins through phosphorylation and the action of transglutaminase, and pathogenesis of chronic disease associated with the aging process. Dr. Balin has received numerous National Institutes of Health and private foundation grant awards for his research. He is highly published in peer-reviewed journals, and has written a number of chapters and reviews on the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, including reviews on the "Pathogen Hypothesis" of this disease (see live discussion section, www.alzforum.org). In addition, he has presented and continues to present his work at major national and international scientific meetings including a number of international and world congresses on Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.


Medical College of Pennsylvania Nominee for Presidential Faculty Fellowship Program (1992)

Amer Soc for Cell Biology-Glenn Foundation Award for Outstanding Research in Aging (1996)

Professor of the Year 2008 – Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine – Awarded by DO class of 2010

Alzheimer’s Association “Making the Difference” – in recognition of co-editorship of JAOA Supplement – “Managing Alzheimer’s disease through early detection and treatment - 2010

Selected Publications

Balin, B.J., Gérard, H.C., Arking, E.J., Appelt, D.M., Branigan, P.J., Abrams, J.T., Whittum-Hudson, J.A., and Hudson, A.P.: Identification and localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer's brain. Med. Micro. & Immunol. 187:23-42, 1998.

Katsetos, C.D., Herman, M.M., Balin, B.J., Arking, E.J., Vinores, S.A., Karkavelas, G. and Frankfurter, A.: Divergent neuronal and glial differentiation of the PC12 rat pheo-chromocytoma cell line maintained in a gelfoam matrix system: An immunoperoxidase and immunoblot study with antibodies to neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, synaptophysin,GFAP and S100 protein. Anat. Record 250:351-365,1998.

Lieberman, A.P., Trojanowski, J.Q., Lee, V.M.-Y., Balin, B.J., Ding, X.-S., and Grossman, M.: Cognitive, Neuroimaging, and Pathological studies of Pick’s Disease. Ann. Neurol. 43:259-265,1998.

Reed, L.A., Schmidt, M.L., Wszolek, Z.K., Balin, B.J., Sootorniyomkij, V., Lee, V.M.-Y., Trojanowski, J.Q., and Schelper, R.L.: The Neuropathology of Chromosome 17-linked Autosomal Dominant Parkinsonism-Dementia (Pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration). J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. 57:588-601, 1998.

Gerard H.C., Wang G.F., Balin, B.J., Schumacher H.R., and Hudson A.P.: Frequency of apolipoprotein E (APOE) allele types in patients with Chlamydia-associated arthritis and other arthritides. Microbial Pathogenesis 26:35-43, 1999.

Arking, E.J., Appelt, D.M., Abrams, J.T., Kolby, S.J., Hudson, A.P., and Balin, B.J.: Ultrastructural Analysis of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer’s brain. Pathogenesis 1(3):210-211, 1999.

Abrams, J.T., Vonderheid, E.C., Kolby, S.J., Appelt, D.M., Arking, E.J., and Balin, B.J.: Sezary T Cell Activating Factor is a Chlamydia pneumoniae associated protein. Clin. Diag. Lab. Immuno. 6 (6):895-905, 1999.

Balin, B.J. and Appelt, D.M.:Transglutaminase-catalyzed Formation of Alzheimer-like Insoluble Complexes From Recombinant Tau. In:Alzheimer’s Disease: Methods and Protocols. (In Methods in Molecular Medicine, pp 395-403, The Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ; edited by Dr. Nigel M. Hooper, 2000).

Hudson, A.P., Gerard, H.C., Whittum-Hudson, J.A., Appelt, D.M., Balin, B.J.: Chlamydia pneumoniae, APOEgenotype, and Alzheimer’s Disease. In: Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chronic Diseases, pp 121-136, 2000; Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany; edited by Johanna L’Age-Stehr).

Katsetos, C.D., Valle, L.D., Geddes, J.F., Assimakopoulou, M., Legido, A., Boyd, J.C., Balin, B., Parikh, N.A., Maraziotis, T., de Chadarevian, J-P., Varakis, J.N., Matsas, R., Frankfurter, A., Herman, M.M., and Khalili, K.: Aberrant localization of the neuronal class III beta-tubulin in astrocytomas. Arch Pathol Lab Med 125(5):613-624, 2001.

Abrams, J.T., Balin, B.J., and Vonderheid, E.C.: Association between Sezary T Cell Activating Factor, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma. New York Acad Sci 941:69-85, 2001.

Balin, B.J., Appelt, D.M. : The Role of Infection in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 101 (12 Suppl PT 1): S1-S6, 2001.

MacIntyre, A., Hammond, C.J., Little, C.S., Appelt, D.M., Balin, B.J.: Chlamydia pneumoniae infection alters the junctional complex proteins of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. FEMS Microbiology Letters 217: 167-172, 2002.

MacIntyre, A., Abramov, R., Hammond, , C.J., Hudson, A.P., Arking, E.J., Little, C.S., Appelt, D.M., Balin, B.J.: Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of human brain endothelial cells and monocytes promotes the transmigration of monocytes through an in vitro blood brain barrier. J. Neurosci. Res. 71: 740-750, 2003.

Balin, B.J., Appelt, D.M., Whittum-Hudson, J.A., Hudson, A.P.: Infectious Agents and Alzheimer’s Disease. Recent Research Developments in Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 1:187-202, 2003.

Balin, B.J., Hammond, C.J., Little, C.S, MacIntyre, A., Appelt, D.M.: Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. In: Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection and Diseases. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, New York; Edited by Drs. M. Bendinelli, Y. Yamamoto, and H. Friedman, 2004, pp. 211-226.

Little, C.S., Hammond, C.J., MacIntyre, A., Balin, B.J. , Appelt, D.M. : Chlamydia pneumoniae induces Alzheimer-like amyloid plaques in brains of BALB/c mice. Neurobiol. Aging 25: 419-429, 2004.

R.F. Itzhaki, M.A. Wozniak, D.M. Appelt, B.J. Balin. Infiltration of the brain by pathogens causes Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol. Aging, 25:619-627, 2004.

Little, C.S., Bowe, A., Lin, R., Litsky, J., Balin, B.J., and Fresa-Dillon, K.L.:Age alterations in extent and severity of experimental intranasal infection by Chlamydophila pneumoniae in BALB/c mice. Infect. and Immun. 73:1-12, 2005.

Young, L.H., Balin, B.J., and Weis, M.T.: Go 6983: A fast acting protein kinase C inhibitor that attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Cardiovascular Drug Reviews 23: 255-272, 2005.

Gérard, H.C., Dreses-Werringloer, U., Wildt, K.S., Oszust, C., Balin, B.J., Frey II, W.H., Bordayo, E.Z., Whittum-Hudson, J.A., and Hudson, A.P.: Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in the Alzheimer’s brain. FEMS Immuno. and Med. Micro. 48:355-366, 2006.

Balin, B., Hammond, C., Taylor, A., Tuitt, K., Abraham, J., Appelt, D. Immuno-detection of Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in the Alzheimer brain. In Alzheimer's disease: New Advances, Medimond Internatl Proceedings, 301-5, 2006.

Hammond, C., Little, C.S., Longo, N., Procacci, C., Appelt, D., Balin, B. Antibiotic alters inflammation in the mouse brain during persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. In Alzheimer's disease: New Advances, Medimond Internatl Proceedings, 537-540, 2006.

Way, D., Albert, E., Hammond, C., Bell, M., Balin, B., Appelt, D. Caspase activity is inhibited in neuronal cells infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae: implications for apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease. In Alzheimer's disease: New Advances, Medimond Internatl Proceedings, 295-99, 2006.

Balin, B.J., Appelt, D.M., Little, C.S., Hammond, C.J., Whittum-Hudson, J.A., Hudson, A.P.: Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in Alzheimer’s disease. In: Microbial Infections of the Neurologic System. Springer Publishers; Edited by Andreas Seyfang, H. Friedman, and M. Bendinelli, 2007.

Appelt, D.M., Roupas, M., Hammond, C.J., Little, C.S., and Balin, B.J.: Apoptotic effects of Chlamydophila pneumoniae following infection of neuronal cells. BMC Neuroscience, 9:13-23, 2008.

Balin, B.J., Little, C.S., Hammond, C. J., Appelt, D. M., Whittum-Hudson, J.A., Gérard, H.C., Hudson, A.P. Chlamydophila pneumoniae and the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. J. Alz. Dis. 13:371-380, 2008.

Hammond, C. J., Hallock, L.R., Appelt, D. M., Little, C.S., Balin, B.J.: Immunohistological Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer’s Disease Brain. BMC Neuroscience 11:121, 2010.

Metz, R.A., Balin, B.J., Abrams, J.T., Schrogie, J.J.: Inflammatory mediators may have divergent roles in cancer and in Alzheimer's disease. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 88(4):466, 2010.

Simpkins, J.W., Wood, B.E., Balin, B.J.: Alzheimer disease: the crisis is upon us. J. Am. Osteopath. Assoc., 110 (9 Suppl 8): Sii-2, 2010.

Galluzzi, K.E., Appelt, D.M., Balin, B.J.: Modern care for patients with Alzheimer disease: rationale for early intervention. J. Am. Osteopath. Assoc.,110 (9 Suppl 8):S37-42, 2010.

Balin, B.J., Schrogie, V.J., Abrams, J.T.: Toward a unifying hypothesis in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 17:587-589, 2011.

Hudson, A.P., Balin, B.J., Crutcher, K., Robinson, S.: New thinking on the etiology and pathogenesis of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. International J. Alzheimer’s disease 2011:1-2, 2011.

Balin, B.J., Hammond, C.J., Little, C.S., Appelt, D.M., Hingley, S.T.: Evidence for an Infectious Etiology in Alzheimer’s disease. In: Advanced Understanding of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-529-7, Intech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2011.

Thacker, J.D., Balin, B.J., Appelt, D.M., Sassi-Gaha, S., Purohit, M., Rest, R.F., Artlett, C.M.: Host-response to injury and infection and development of a first-in-class, broad-spectrum, anti-infective drug. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo. 56(4):1921-1930, 2012.

Balin, B.J. and Hammond, C.J.: Emerging viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system. Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine 4:1-10, 2012.

Eddens, T., Beaudoin, S., Steinberger, A., Little, C.S., Shell, D., Wizel, B., Balin, B., Fresa-Dillon, K.L.: Effect of age and vaccination on extent and spread of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in C57BL/6 mice. Immunity and Ageing, 9(1):11, 2012.

Balin, B.J. and Hudson, A.P.: Etiology and pathogenesis of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep, 14:417, 1-10, 2014.

Lim, C., Hammond, C.J., Hingley, S.T., Balin, B.J.: Chlamydia pneumoniae induces an inflammatory response consistent with that observed in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neuroinflammation, (in preparation), 2014.

Selected Presentations

American Association of Bioanalysts (San Antonio, TX) - "New Germ Theory of Disease". (Keynote Address), May 18-20, 2000.

Max-Planck Institute for Infection Biology (Berlin, Germany) - "New Germ Theory of Alzheimer’s Disease". March 27, 2001.

45th Annual American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Research Conference (San Diego, CA) - "Microbial Agents as Environmental Factors in Chronic Disease States" October 23, 2001.

33rd National Symposium for Eastern Pennsylvania Branch of the American Society for Microbiology – “Infections of the Central Nervous System” (Philadelphia, PA) – “Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Alzheimer’s Disease”. November 14-15, 2002.

Savyon Diagnostics, Inc. in conjunction with 14th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease (Prague, Czech Republic) – “C. pneumoniae in Alzheimer’s Disease”. May 1-4, 2004.

Avigen, Inc. (Oakland, CA) - “Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Alzheimer’s Disease”. May 7, 2004.

Association of Clinical Scientists Annual Meeting (Troy, Michigan) – “Evidence for Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease”. May 11-14, 2005

The Rotary Club (Moorestown, NJ) - “Evidence for Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in Alzheimer’s disease”. October 20, 2005.

Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Continuing Medical Education (Philadelphia, PA) – “Correlating current hypotheses of Alzheimer’s Disease for bench to bedside intervention”. May 20, 2006.

Drexel University, Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology (Philadelphia, PA) – “Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in Alzheimer’s disease”. June 8, 2006.

Macula Vision Research Foundation (Santa Fe, NM) – “Evidence for Chlamydia pneumoniae as a Trigger for Sporadic Late-onset Alzheimer’s Disease”. September 14-17, 2006.

Saint Vincent Health System (Erie, PA) – “Emerging Pathogens in Alzheimer’s disease” – January 18-19, 2007.

AOA Research Conference (San Diego, CA) - Chronic Disorders of Aging in the 21st Century: New Insights and Approaches – “Infection and Neurodegenerative Disorders”, October 26, 2007.

Lankenau Institute for Medical Research (Wynnewood, PA) – “Chlamydia pneumoniae in Alzheimer’s disease – latest updates”, May 14, 2009.

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (Nashville, TN) – “Chlamydia pneumoniae as an environmental risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease”, March 12, 2010.

Neurotalk 2010 (Singapore, Singapore) – “Evidence for Infection as an environmental risk factor for Alzheimer’s Disease”, June 26, 2010.

AOA Research Conference 2010 (San Francisco, CA) – “Chlamydia pneumoniae in Alzheimer’s disease: Analysis of the Host-Pathogen Relationship, October 25, 2010.

Conestoga High School Advanced Psychology (Paoli, PA) – “Alzheimer’s disease: A researcher’s perspective” – October, 2011 and 2012

AZO Pharmaceutical Fraternity - Kappa Chapter, Continuing Education Programs (Timonium, MD) - “Analysis of Risk Factors in Alzheimer’s disease: What About Infection?”, October 27, 2013

Baldwin School – Advanced Biology Class – (Bryn Mawr, PA) – “Analysis of Risk Factors in Alzheimer’s disease: What About Infection?” – March 12, 2014

Volunteer & Leadership

Chairman, IACUC for Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (1999 - 2003)

Admissions Committee for Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (1999 - 2011)

Director, Center for Chronic Disorders of Aging at PCOM – (2005 – present)

Academic Planning and Budget Committee for PCOM (2004 - 2008)

Chair, Faculty Senate – PCOM (2008 - 2009)

Faculty Representative to Executive Faculty – PCOM (2009 - 2010)


NIH/NIA - R29-AG10160 ; - PI; "The neuronal cytoskeleton in aging and Alzheimer's Disease".(4/1/92-3/31/97).

AHERF Neurosciences Grant (G9410-020-Y01) - Co-PI; "Differential expression and sorting of the neuron-specific class III b-tubulin isotype in human neuronal and neuroendocrine tumor cell lines maintained in an organ culture system". (2/1/95-1/31/96).

NIH/NIAID - R01- AI44055-01A1 - coPI; “Chlamydia pneumoniae: a pathogen in Alzheimer’s Disease?” (06/01/99 - 05/31/04).

NIH/ R15-co investigator- "Immunosenescence and Chlamydia Pneumoniae " (05/01/00-6/30/02)

Adolf and Rose Levis Foundation - PI -“The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease”. (1/01/2003- present)

IIRG – Alzheimer’s Association – PI: “Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of mice triggers Alzheimer-like pathology” (09/1/04 – 08/31/07).

Osteopathic Heritage Foundation Endowment – PI (Director, CCDA ) – “Endowment for the Center for Chronic Disorders of Aging”. (12/8/06 - present).

The IHVR (Institute for Hepatitis and Virus Research) through a DCED (Department of Community and Economic Development) Innovation Grant from the State of Pennsylvania called “Talent Scout for Technology” – PI: “The case for an infectious etiology of late onset Alzheimer’s disease “ (01/01/11 – 12/31/11).


Numerous interviews with NBC 10 and ABC 6 affiliates
Write-ups in local, national and international newspapers

Research Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Infectious disease
  • Chlamydia pneumoniae Pathogens
  • Transglutaminase
  • Blood-brain and olfactory/nasal brain barriers
Last Updated: 3/19/15